马克·多维奇(Mark Dovich):

On June 19, the 亚美尼亚:n government 已批准: 环境部提出的一项立法倡议,引入了关于塞凡湖捕鱼的严格规定。

Adopted amid mounting concerns over depleted fish stocks in Sevan, the new legislation aims to regulate fishing by banning the harvesting of all species of fish in 那个湖 except the popular whitefish, mandating that all fishing activities take place at least 500 meters from the shoreline, setting the minimum weight of fish that may be harvested at 500 grams, prohibiting all commercial fishing activities from taking place outside of daylight hours, and outlawing all fishing activities entirely from October 1, 2020 to March 1, 2021.

According to Acting Minister of Environment Vahe Jilavyan, who presented the bill to the government, the new regulations are primarily intended to curb illegal fishing in Sevan and thereby increase 那个湖’s fish stocks.

At that meeting, the government also announced its intention to continue to raise 那个湖’s water levels and further restrict the diversion of water from Sevan to the Hrazdan River, which drains 那个湖.

政府’限制在塞凡(Sevan)捕鱼的决定迅速引起亚美尼亚的关注—and particularly in Gegharkunik Province, which surrounds 那个湖 entirely and is home to nearly a quarter of a million people. With few other employment opportunities available in the area, many households in Gegharkunik rely on fishing. It remains unclear if the government will take steps to ensure that subsistence fishing remains viable for lakeshore communities under the new legislation.


塞凡湖是高加索地区最大的淡水湖泊,也是世界上最大的高山湖泊或高海拔湖泊之一。仅塞凡(Sevan)构成亚美尼亚的六分之一’的总领土,几十年来一直是该国的经济命脉。 Sevan-Hrazdan级联:哈兹丹河沿岸的水力发电厂综合体,灌溉亚美尼亚约70%的土地’的农业用地,占全国的15%’s total electricity. 

However, scientists, environmentalists, and activists in 亚美尼亚: have long expressed concerns over the environmental issues facing Sevan, of which the periodic growth of algal blooms in 那个湖 remains the most worrisome. Though algal blooms have affected Lake Sevan 自1960年代以来:,去年7月的一次大花开:—with satellite photographs from the Ministry of Environment showing nearly half of 那个湖’绿藻覆盖的表面:—提示环保主义者: 警告: that 那个湖 was “濒临破坏:” and 甚至可能: “turn into a swamp”如果不采取重大措施解决持续的环境恶化问题。

根据亚美尼亚化学物理研究所所长塞兰·米纳斯扬(Seyran Minasyan)的说法’美国国家科学院,Sevan加速增长的背后有四个主要原因’s algal blooms.

首先,在1940年代,亚美尼亚经历了快速的工业化时期,苏联当局实施了一项计划,从塞万省调水用于灌溉和电气化。 1950年代,塞万’的水位开始明显下降,到2002年,’的体积减少了40%以上。尽管自2000年代初以来亚美尼亚政府为提高Sevan所做的成功努力’s water levels—主要是通过修建隧道将阿帕河和沃罗坦河的水引到湖中—the lake’的水位仍然很低。

Due to the industrial discharge of water, the level in 那个湖 dropped making the only island there a peninsula in 1950-s.

塞万岛(现为半岛),建于19世纪末。一直以来: 观测到的: 在其他湖泊环境中,随着养分浓度的增加而溶解氧的浓度降低,水位降低很可能导致总体水质下降。已经证明这种不平衡会加速湖泊和其他水域中藻华的生长。

Second, the partial restoration of 那个湖’在修建Arpa-Sevan和Vorotan-Arpa隧道后,由于水位过高,导致2011年淹没了约4,000公顷的灌木丛和灌木丛。这种植被在洪水发生之前尚未清除,但仍在水下,缓慢分解,并进一步促进了塞凡州正在进行的水降解过程。

Third, the vast majority of sewage produced in Gegharkunik Province is dumped into 那个湖 without proper treatment beforehand, again further degrading the quality of water in Sevan. It is 估计: that more than 6,500 thousand cubic meters of sewage is discharged annually into 那个湖 from the nearby towns of Gavar, Martuni, and Masrik, in addition to about 541 thousand cubic meters of waste from Gegharkunik’s Sotk Gold Mine.

第四点也是最后一点,塞万的鱼类资源严重枯竭—与过度捕捞和水质总体下降有关—deprives 那个湖’s ecosystem of a key check on algal bloom growth, since several of the fish species endemic to Lake Sevan feed on algae. Today, 那个湖 is 估计: to hold just a few hundred tons of fish, down from roughly 25,000 tons of fish in the 1990s.

米纳斯扬在一篇文章中指出: 与CivilNet的访谈: 解决塞凡湖面临的环境问题的任何方法都必须解决导致湖泊退化的所有因素’的水。因此,Minasyan建议政府应继续努力提高Sevan’的水位,清除2011年以来被淹没的灌木丛和灌木以及预计在不久的将来将被淹没的任何其他植被的地区,升级三个大城镇加瓦尔,马尔蒂尼和瓦尔德尼斯的污水处理厂的清洁设备位于海岸线上,并实施了一项计划,以在塞凡岛放养鱼类。

Speaking with CivilNet, reporter Arman Suleymanyan also highlighted the importance of gathering accurate information and data about 那个湖’应对环境破坏的条件。 Suleymanyan指出,没有政府自从当选亚美尼亚’s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 has laid out a long-term strategic plan for Lake Sevan, monitored the quality of water in 那个湖, or tracked 那个湖’s fish stocks—甚至环境部本身也承认的知识匮乏。

Given the important role Sevan plays in 亚美尼亚:n agricultural and energy production, any efforts to further alter 那个湖’s ecosystem, for better or for worse, have ripple effects far beyond 那个湖’的海岸。为此,亚美尼亚政府’s decision to restrict fishing in Sevan is only a first step in a long road ahead to bring out 那个湖’s full potential.